Web based magazine, No.3, June 15, 2007

National Programmes and Initiatives

National Infrastructures
Successful European Cooperation
Outstanding Scientific Results
National Centres of Excellence



National Centres of Excellence

Previous article


Centre of Excellence in Solar Cell Materials, Estonia
Contact person: Prof. Malle Krunks
Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology
Contact address: Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn 19086, Estonia
http:// www.ttu.ee
tel.:+ 372 620 3363; fax: +372 620 3367
e-mail: malle@staff.ttu.ee

Research area: Thin films by wet chemical methods for photovoltaics and electronics

Deposition techniques: spray pyrolysis, chemical bath deposition, sol gel, SILAR.
Supporting techniques: RF magnetron sputtering, PVD, plasma etching
Thin film materials: Oxides (ZnO, TiO2), chalogenides (CdS, ZnS, In2S3, In(OH)xSy, CuInS2 and related compounds,  CdTe).
Characterisation techniques at TUT: XRD, SEM+EDX+WDX; micro-Raman, AFM,  UV-VIS, FTIR, TG/DTG/DTA, TG/EGA(FTIR), PL (8K+ temperature dependent), I-V, impedance spectroscopy (RT+temperature dependent),  solar cells output characteristics
Experience also in XPS (PES), ellipsometry, Kelvin probe, surface photovoltage, NMR measurements (at partners).

Field of competencies:

  • Thin films formation chemistry in spray pyrolysis, chemical bath and sol gel deposition processes including reactions in solutions, structure and thermal decomposition of intermediate complexes formed in wet chemical processes;
  • Deposition of flat and nano-micro structured device quality thin films and multilayered structures;
  • Elemental and phase composition, crystal quality of thin films;
  • Structural, optical and electrical properties of thin films of semiconductors and dielectrics;
  • Defect structure of materials;
  • Properties of photovoltaic structures.


The research is directed to development of nanocrystalline/nanostructured inorganic thin films by wet chemical methods of chemical spray pyrolysis, chemical bath, SILAR and sol-gel deposition techniques. These methods are simple, fast and industrially relevant to produce large area films at low cost. The objective of the research work was to develop device quality films for several applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Main attention is paid to the photovoltaic materials - window layers of ZnO, TiO2 and buffer/absorber layers such as CdS, ZnS, In2S3, In(OH)xSy, CuInS2, CuInSe2, CdTe, etc. The approach applied comprises the chain of studies from the precursors to thin films and devices. Fundamental studies are focused to the films formation chemistry including the chemical reactions in solution, formation of intermediate phases, its thermal decomposition and thin film growth mechanisms, and the materials defect structure. Applied research is going in the field of preparation and characterisation of the films and multilayered structures, including solar cells.

Group members:

Previous article

4M NMS workshop
24 September 2007

Piran, Slovenia
[...more details]


3-5 October 2007
Borovets, Bulgaria

[...more details]



Web-based magazine

Website MINOS-EURONET project